Role of Polymers in biology and biological systems

Biological macromolecules which are necessary for life include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. These are the important cellular components and perform a wide array of functions necessary for the survival and growth of living organisms. These play a critical role in cell structure and function. Most biological macromolecules are polymers, which are any molecules constructed by linking together many smaller molecules, called monomers. Typically all the monomers in a polymer tend to be the same, or at least very similar to each other, linked over and over again to build up the larger macromolecule. These simple monomers can be linked in many different combinations to produce complex biological polymers. The roles of macromolecules in living systems as information storage systems (as DNA) and in biochemical synthesis have been much studied and are relatively well understood and the roles of polymers in biological lubrication and its relation both to diseases such as osteoarthritis and to remedies such as tissue engineering. Protein polymers are available in large quantities in biology, and a huge variety of distinct filaments can be found and Protein misfolding can be a route to pathological polymerization in diseases from Alzheimer’s to Parkinson’s. Synthetic polymers without difficulty can be formed from peptides and these are being studied for many causes, from forming new biomaterials to drug delivery/imaging. The demand for bio-based polymers is assumed to surge during the estimated period of 2015-2019 owing to the favorable regulatory outlook. The global biomarkers market is expected to reach US $45.55 Billion by 2020 from $24.10 Billion in 2015, at a CAGR of 13.58% through 2015 and 2020.